Bias (Crossply) Tyre Construction

1 Tread:
Provides traction and wear and protects the carcass underneath.

2 Sidewall:
Provides protection for the plies and withstands flexing and weathering.

3 Carcass:
The diagonal ply carcass transmits all load, braking and steering forces between the wheel and the surface and withstands the burst loads of the tyre under operating pressure.

4 Bead bundle:
The steel bead bundle properly seats and seals the tyre on the rim and maintains it in position.

5 Apexes:
Rubber fillers in the bead and lower sidewall area to provide a progressive transition from the stiff bead area into the flexible sidewall.

6 Chafer:
A layer of hard rubber coated fabric that resists erosion of the bead zone by the rim flange.

7 Tube:
A separate air chamber, compounded to prevent loss of air, inserted into tube-type tyres.