Radial Tyre Construction

1 Tread:
Provides traction and wear and protects the
carcass underneath.

2 Belt:
Multiple, low angle, cord layers provide strength to the tyre, stabilize the tread and prevent penetrations into the carcass.
 
3 Sidewall:
Provides protection for the plies and withstands flexing and weathering.

4 Ply:
The radial (90°) plies transmit all load, braking and steering forces between the wheel and the surface and withstand the burst loads of the tyre under operating pressure.

5 Innerliner:
A layer of rubber in tubeless tyres specially compounded to prevent loss of air.

6 Bead bundle:
The steel bead bundle properly seats and seals the tyre on the rim and maintains it in position.

7 Apexes:
Rubber fillers in the bead and lower sidewall area to provide a progressive transition from the stiff bead area into the flexible sidewall.

8 Chafer:
A layer of hard rubber that resists erosion of the bead zone by the rim flange.